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Sulphuric Acid on the WebTM Technical Manual DKL Engineering, Inc.

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Storage/Loading/Unloading - Transportation
September 28, 2013

Introduction
North America
        Hazardous Materials
        Railcar
        Tank Car Specifications
Australia
        Cargo Ship - Bulk Sulphur
Associated Links

Molten Sulphur

Sulphuric Acid

Shipping Case Study


Introduction

The transportation of chemicals is regulated by government agencies to ensure minimum standards are met for the equipment and procedures used with the ultimate goal of protecting the general public.  Each country or region will have its own set of regulations and rules.

North America

In the United States, the transportation of goods is regulated by the Department of Transportation (DOT).  Procedures and regulations related to transportation can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Department of Transportation 49 CFR 171 to 179.

Some of the sections of CFR 49 that apply to the transportation and handling of sulphuric acid are:

171.15

Spill and Leak Reporting

172.510 

Placards, Rail Car

172.514

Placards, Cargo Tanks

173.29

Empty Containers

173.272

Authorized Container, Sulfuric Acid

174.67

Unloading Tank Cars

174.834

Unloading Cargo Tanks

177.839  

Securing Closures, Highway

178.330  

Container Specification MC 310

178.331

Container Specification MC 311

178.343

Container Specification MC 312

179 Subpart D

Container Specification, Tank Cars

179.200-18

Safety Relief Devices, Tank Cars

Hazardous Materials - 49 CFR Ch. I Part 172.101

Commodity Hazard Class or Division ID Number Packing Group Label Codes Special Provisions Packaging Quantity Limitations Vessel Stowage
Exceptions Non Bulk Bulk Passenger Aircraft/Rail Cargo Aircraft Location Other
Sulfur 9 NA1350 III 9 30 None None 240 No Limit No Limit A 19, 74
4.1 UN1350 III 4.1 30, T1 None None 240 No Limit No Limit A 19, 74
Sulfur Dioxide 2.3 UN1079   2.3, 8 3, B14 None 304 314, 315 Forbidden 25 kg D 40
Sulfur, Molten 9 NA2448 III 9 T9, T38 None 213 247 Forbidden Forbidden C 61
4.1 UN2448 III 4.1 T9, T38 None 213 247 Forbidden Forbidden C 61
Sulfur Trioxide, Inhibited or Stabilized 8 UN1829 I 8, 6.1 2, A7, B9, B14, B32, B49, B74, B77, N34, T38, T43, T45 None 227 244 Forbidden 25 kg A 40
Sulfur Trioxide, uninhibited 8 NA1829 I 8, 6.1 2, A7, B9, B14, B32, B49, B74, B77, N34, T38, T43, T45 None 227 244 Forbidden 25 kg C 10, 40
Sulfuric Acid, Fuming, <30wt% SO3 8 UN1831 I 8 A3, A7, B84, N34, T18, T27 None 201 243 Forbidden 2.5 L C 14, 40
Sulfuric Acid, Fuming, >30wt% SO3 8 UN1831 I 8, 6.1 2, A3, A6, A7, B9, B14, B32, B74, B77, B84, N34, T38, T43, T45 None 227 244 Forbidden Forbidden C 14, 40
Sulfuric Acid, Spent 8 UN1832 II 8 A3, A7, B2, B83, B84, N34, T9, T27 None 202 242 Forbidden 30 L C 14
Sulfuric Acid, >51wt% 8 UN1830 II 8 A3, A7, B3, B83, B84, N34, T9, T27 154 202 242 1 L 30 L C 14
Sulfuric Acid, <51wt% 8 UN2796 II 8 A3, A7, B2, B15, N6, N34, T9, T27 154 202 242 1 L 30 L B -

Notes:

ID Numbers - Numbers preceded by the letters "UN" are associated with proper shipping names considered appropriate for international transportation as well as domestic transportation..  Those preceded by the letters "NA" are associated with proper shipping names not recognized for international transportation, except to and from Canada.

Packing Group - Packing Groups I, II and III indicate the degree of danger presented by the material is either great, medium or minor, respectively.

Label Codes - Codes represent the hazard warning labels required for a package fill with the particular material.
                        4.1 - Flammable Solid
                        6.1 - Poison Inhalation Hazard
                        8 - Corrosive
                        9 - Class 9

Special Provisions - Specifies codes for special provisions applicable to hazardous materials.  The meaning of the codes is given in part 172.102.

Packaging - Refer to 49 CFR Ch. 1 Part 173 for details.

Quantity Limitations - Maximum quantities that may be offered for transportation in one package by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car or by cargo aircraft only.

Vessel Stowage (Location) - Specifies the authorized stowage location on board cargo and passenger vessels.
A - On deck or below deck
B - On deck or below deck on a vessel limited to not more than the larger of 25 passengers or one passenger per each three meters of overall vessel length and on deck only where the number of passengers exceeds the previously stated limits.
C - On deck only
D - On deck only on a vessel limited to not more than the larger of 25 passengers or one passenger per each three meters of overall vessel length but is prohibited on passenger vessels where the limiting number of passengers is exceeded.

Vessel Stowage (Other) - Refer to 49 CFR Ch. 1 Part 176.84

Railcar

Commodity Department of Transportation (DOT) Paragraph No. Classification Specification
Sulphur, Molten - - 111A60W1
Sulphur Dioxide 173.314 Non Flammable Gas 105A200W
106A500X
110A500W
Sulphuric Acid (<51wt%) 173.272 Corrosive 111A60W5
Sulphuric Acid (>51wt%, <65.25wt%) 173.272 Corrosive 111A60W2
(Interior Coated)
Sulphuric Acid (>65.25wt%) 173.272 Corrosive 111A60W2
111A100W2
Sulphuric Acid & Nitric Acid Mixture (containing not less than 10% sulphuric acid) 173.267 Oxidizer 111A60W2
111A100W2
Sulphuric Acid, Fuming 173.272 Corrosive 111A60W2
111A100W2
Sulphuric Acid, Methacrylic Acid & Inhibitors Mixture 173.245 Corrosive 111A60W2
111A100W2
Sulphuric Anhydride, Stabilized 173.273 Corrosive 111A60W2
111A100W2
Sulphur Trioxide, Stabilized 173.273 Corrosive 111A60W2
111A100W2

Tank Car Specifications

105A200W Steel fusion-welded tank manway nozzle
Insulated
Top unloading arrangement required
Safety valve (150 psi)
Bottom outlet or washout prohibited
106A500X
110A500W
Multiple unit with removable steel uninsulated tanks mounted on underframe.  Tanks have fusion-welded longitudinal tank seam and forge welded head seams.  Each tank equipped with loading and discharge valve and safety valve or vent set for pressure not exceeding 375 psi.  Popular name is "Ton Container".
111A60W2 Steel fusion-welded tank without dome
Non-insulated or insulated
2% minimum outage
Gauging device
Top unloading arrangement required
Safety valve (35 psi) (required on certain commodities as specified by DOT) or safety vent (60 psi)
Bottom outlet prohibited, bottom washout optional
111A100W2 Same as 111A60W2 but with safety valve (75 psi) (required on certain commodities as specified by DOT) or safety vent (100 psi)
111A60W5 Steel fusion-welded tank without dome
Non-insulated or insulated

Rubber-lined tank
2% minimum outage
Gauging device
Top unloading arrangement required
Safety vent (60 psi)
Bottom outlet or washout prohibited

North American Emergency Response Guide No. 137

Australia

Cargo Ship - Bulk Sulphur

The following are guidelines for the safe handling of bulk sulphur transported by ocean going cargo ships.

Hold Cleanliness

Must be thoroughly clean and washed with fresh water.   Hold should be lime washed on trimming plates and tank tops.  Upper sections should have sound coating of paint.

Weather Precautions

No special precautions.  Can be worked in the rain.

Carriage

Seal hatches tightly.  Remove ALL fuses serving holds and adjacent spaces.  Any hold ventilators should have spark arrestors.  Pump bilge wells regularly to prevent accumulation of water/acid solution.

Discharge

Normal grab discharge.

Clean Up

There is a possibility of dust explosions, especially after discharge and during cleaning.  It is strongly recommended that holds are washed out with fresh water and NOT swept.  Ensure that all residues are washed away and the holds thoroughly dried.  Wet dust or residues will form highly corrosive sulphurous acid, which is extremely dangerous to personnel and will corrode steel.