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Storage/Loading/Unloading -
Transportation - Sulphur
April 2, 2008

Introduction
Molten Sulphur
     Truck Transportation
     Ship Transportation
     Train Transportation
Associated Links

 


Introduction

Sulphur is transported both as a solid in bulk and as a liquid in the molten form.  Each form has its own special requirements in order to transport sulphur safely, with minimal environmental impact and minimal contamination of the sulphur.

Molten Sulphur

The key to transporting sulphur in molten form is maintaining its temperature at approximately 140oC.  Transport over short distances can be done in well insulated containers.  The low thermal conductivity of sulphur minimizes heat loss and helps it to retain heat so it does not solidify.  Over longer distances, a heating system is required to maintain the sulphur in the liquid state.

Truck Transportation

A typical semi-trailer for transporting molten sulphur is shown below.  The capacity of the tank is approximately 3,800 USGal and is constructed of stainless steel and is insulated.

Standard Molten Sulphur Trailer

Where permitted, the amount of sulphur transported per trip can be increased by going to a B-train arrangement.  The equipment shown below is a B-train arrangement manufactured by Bedard Tankers and has a capacity of 5,500 Imp. Gal.

5,500 Imp. Gal. Super B-Train (Bedard Tankers)

Tank trailers designed for molten sulphur are generally dedicated to hauling molten sulphur.  A tank that has just carried molten sulphur cannot be easily cleaned so that the trailer can carry a different commodity on the return trip or to another destination.  The result is that the tank is full on the delivery trip but is empty on the return trip.  To maximize what is known as "loaded miles", a specially designed tank trailer combines a tank for molten sulphur and a bulk carrier.  On one trip, the trailer carries molten sulphur and on the return trip carries a bulk commodity such as fertilizers.  This type of trailer is called a backhaul double and is used in the Florida region by fertilizer manufacturers to improve the trucking economics.  Backhaul doubles are also used in western Canada but instead of a sulphur/bulk carrier, a sulphur/fuel carrier is used.

Backhaul Double

Ship Transportation

Sulphur can be shipped in either solid or liquid form over long distances by ocean going ships.  Solid sulphur can be shipped in virtually any bulk carrier provided care has been taken to thoroughly cleanout the hold.  Molten sulphur is transported in specially designed ships equipped with heating systems.  Some of the vessels designed to carry molten sulphur are shown in the table below.

Ship Name

Picture

General

Ship Details

Sulphur Enterprise

Owner:
Manager:

Flag: United States of America

Port:

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification:

Call Sign: KAKB

IMO-Nr.: 9077044

Yard:

Year Built:

GRT:

DWT:

NRT:

Length:  m

Breadth:  m

Draught:  m

Tanks:  m3

Eastern Dragon

 

Owner: Sansho Line S.A

Manager: Sansho Kaiun Co., Ltd.

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: 3FHR5

IMO-Nr.: 9114452

Yard: Fokuoka, Japan

Year Built: 1995

GRT: 3385

DWT: 5088

NRT: 1016

Length: 96.90 m

Breadth: 16.0 m

Draught: 6.363 m

Tanks: 2456 m3

Eastern Tiger

 

Owner: Sansho Line S.A

Manager: Sansho Kaiun Co., Ltd.

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: 3FYQ7

IMO-Nr.: 9172741

Yard: Shitanoe Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1997

GRT: 3384

DWT: 5088

NRT: 1016

Length: 96.90 m

Breadth: 16.0 m

Draught: 6.363 m

Tanks: 2456 m3

Hestiana

Owner: Fukurokuju Maritima S.A.

Manager: Fuji Marine Ltd.

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Chemical Type III, Molten Sulphur

Call Sign: 3EAW4

IMO-Nr.: 9336488

Yard: Shin Kurushima Dockyard Co., Ltd.

Year Built:2005

GRT: 2849

DWT: 3599

NRT: 855

Length: 95.02 m

Breadth: 14.0 m

Draught: 5.643 m

Tanks: 1999 m3

Koa Maru

 

Owner: Brimstone Marine, S.A.

Manager:

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: 3FWF4

IMO-Nr.: 9114634

Yard: Shin Kurushima Dockyard Co., Ltd. Hashihama Shidyard

Year Built: 1995

GRT: 2283

DWT: 299

NRT: 685

Length: 92.52 m

Breadth: 13.6 m

Draught: 5.466 m

Tanks: 1559 m3

Kohshinmaru

Owner: Kohshin Shipholding Limited

Manager: Miyako Maritime Co., Ltd.

Flag: Cypriot

Port: Limasol

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: P3DN8

IMO-Nr.: 9172492

Yard: Shin Kochijyuko Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1998

GRT: 2999

DWT: 4287

NRT: 900

Length: 99.92 m

Breadth: 14.5 m

Draught: 6.018 m

Tanks: 2373 m3

Munakata Maru No. 25

 

Owner: Hoyo Kaiun Co., Ltd. & MKM Co., Ltd.

Manager: DCAM

Flag: Japanese

Port: Tokyo

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III, Coasting Service

Call Sign: JPHY

IMO-Nr.: 9036569

Yard: Imamura Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1991

GRT: 998

DWT: 1499

NRT:

Length: 72.95 m

Breadth: 12.0 m

Draught: 4.412 m

Tanks: 788 m3

Namhae Pioneer II

 

Owner: Yamane Panama Co., S.A.

Manager: Heung-A Shipping Co., Ltd.

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: 3EAT9

IMO-Nr.: 9036557

Yard: Imamura Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1991

GRT: 2310

DWT: 2999

NRT: 693

Length: 91.9 m

Breadth: 13.0 m

Draught: 5.812 m

Tanks: 1520 m3

No. 8 Kokamaru

 

Owner: KSK (Panama) Corp.

Manager:

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: 3FNZ4

IMO-Nr.: 9100516

Yard: Shin Kochijyuko Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1994

GRT: 2283

DWT: 2999

NRT: 685

Length: 92.52 m

Breadth: 13.6 m

Draught: 5.467 m

Tanks: 1556 m3

Ryuho Maru

 

Owner: Hikari Marine Co. Ltd.

Manager:

Flag: Japanese

Port: Kobe

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: JPIG

IMO-Nr.: 9036571

Yard: Imamura Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1992

GRT: 1357

DWT: 1704

NRT: 407

Length: 72.95 m

Breadth: 12.0 m

Draught: 4.712 m

Tanks: 785 m3

Sulphur Espoir

 

Owner: Espoir Shipholding Limited

Manager: Miyako Maritime Co., Ltd.

Flag: Cypriot

Port: Limasol

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: P3TS6

IMO-Nr.: 9124251

Yard: Shin Kochijyuko Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1995

GRT: 2976

DWT: 3999

NRT: 893

Length: 99.92 m

Breadth: 14.5 m

Draught: 5.715 m

Tanks: 2208 m3

Sulphur Global

 

Owner: DT Chemical S.A.

Manager:

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: H9GD

IMO-Nr.: 9124938

Yard: Shin Kochijyuko Co., Ltd., Hiroshima (Ex Taihei) Shipyard

Year Built: 1996

GRT: 6996

DWT: 11872

NRT: 2099

Length: 124.03 m

Breadth: 19.8 m

Draught: 8.407 m

Tanks: 6269 m3

Sulphur Glory

 

Owner: DT Chemical S.A.

Manager: Daiichi Tanker Co., Ltd.

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: H9GE

IMO-Nr.: 9072862

Yard: Shin Kurushima Dockyard Co., Ltd. Hashihama Shidyard

Year Built: 1993

GRT: 2283

DWT: 2999

NRT: 685

Length: 92.52 m

Breadth: 13.6 m

Draught: 5.465 m

Tanks: 1560 m3

Sulphur Spirit

 

Owner: MCL Panama S.A.

Manager: Mitsubishi Chemical Logistics Corp.

Flag: Panamanian

Port: Panama

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: 3FRE9

IMO-Nr.: 9209013

Yard: Hitachi Shipbuilding Mukaishima Marine Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1999

GRT: 3498

DWT: 4965

NRT: 1050

Length: 101.05 m

Breadth: 16.0 m

Draught: 6.281 m

Tanks: 2814 m3

Sulphur Tripper

 

Owner: Mitsubishi Chemical Logistics Corp.

Manager: Mitsubishi Chemical Logistics Corp.

Flag: Japanese

Port: Tokyo

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: JGPK

IMO-Nr.: 9118989

Yard: Mukaishima Zoki Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1995

GRT: 997

DWT: 1156

NRT:

Length: 64.5 m

Breadth: 11.0 m

Draught: 3.995 m

Tanks: 588 m3

Tenshinmaru

 

Owner: Daiichi Marine Co., Ltd.

Manager: Daiichi Marine Co., Ltd.

Flag: Japanese

Port: Osaka

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: JPFN

IMO-Nr.: 9088225

Yard: Shin Kochijyuko Co., Ltd.

Year Built: 1994

GRT: 1355

DWT: 1606

NRT: 406

Length: 72.95 m

Breadth: 12.0 m

Draught: 4581 m

Tanks: 815 m3

Toryo Maru

 

Owner: Yamane Shipping Co. Ltd. & Corporation for Advanced Transport & Technology

Manager:

Flag: Japanese

Port: Tokyo

Type: Tanker

DNV I.D.:

Classification: Molten Sulphur, Type III

Call Sign: JGPC

IMO-Nr.: 9115107

Yard: Imamura Shipbuilding Co., Ltd

Year Built: 1995

GRT: 1351

DWT: 1605

NRT:

Length: 69.95 m

Breadth: 12.0 m

Draught: 4.683 m

Tanks:  m3

 

Train Transportation

Large quantities of molten sulphur are transported by rail.  An insulated sulphur railcar loaded with 40 to 70 tonnes of sulphur at 135oC (275oF) will stay molten for 10 to 14 days even in cold climatic conditions.  This is possible because of the solidification of a small amount of sulphur on the inner wall of the tank that effectively insulates the remainder of the tank contents.  When the tank car arrives at the customer, the car is heated using steam to melt the small amount of solid sulphur on the inner walls before the tank car is unloaded.

Typical Molten Sulphur Rail Car