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Sulphuric Acid on the WebTM Technical Manual DKL Engineering, Inc.

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Sulphuric Acid on the Web

Equipment Suppliers

Industry News
Acid Traders

Used Plants
Intellectual Propoerty
Acid Plant Database
Market Information

Technical Manual


Plant Safety
Metallurgial Processes
Sulphur Burning
Acid Regeneration
Lead Chamber
Gas Cleaning
Strong Acid
Acid Storage

Sulphur Systems
Liquid SO2
Boiler Feed Water
Steam Systems

Cooling Water
Effluent Treatment
Analytical Procedures
Materials of Construction
Vendor Data

DKL Engineering, Inc.

Handbook of Sulphuric Acid Manufacturing
Order Form

Sulphuric Acid Decolourization
Order Form
Table of Contents

Process Engineering Data Sheets - PEDS
Order Form
Table of Contents


Bibliography of Sulphuric Acid Technology
Order Form


Sulphuric Acid Plant Specifications

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Engineering Contractors and Plant Designers

September 26, 2023

Acid Recovery and Concentration

Company General Description Website/e-mail
 Bertrams-Logo.gif (37193 bytes) Sulphuric acid concentration process www.bertrams.ch
Beta Control Systems, Inc. Acid recovery system utilizing freeze crystallization www.betacontrol.com
Crown Tech - www.crowntech.com
Crystal X Recovery Provides freeze crystallization technology for the recovery of sulphuric acid. www.crystalxrecovery.com

KBR Ecoplanning Oy

KBR, Inc. is a global technology, engineering, procurement and construction company serving  across three distinct global businesses:

•Technology & Consulting, including proprietary technology in refining, ethylene, ammonia and fertilizers, and gasification; and niche consulting and know-how through subsidiaries Granherne, Energo and GVA

•Engineering & Construction, including Offshore Oil & Gas; Onshore Oil & Gas; LNG/GTL; Refining; Petrochemicals; Chemicals; differentiated EPC, and Industrial Services

•Government Services, including program management and long term annuity contracts


Proprietary equipment suppliers and engineering services for both acid plants and acid recovery and concentration

Mech-Chem Associates Inc. Mech-Chem Associates, Inc. is a full-service design and build engineering firm with specialized knowledge and experience in the Design, Engineering, Construction, and Start-Up of Acid Recovery and Purification Systems. We provide a variety of engineered systems for handling the following acid recovery and purification applications www.acidrecovery.com
Phoenix Systems Inc. Provides freeze crystallization technology for the recovery of sulphuric acid. www.phoenixsystemsinc.com
Concentration and recycling of sulphuric acid www.plinke.de
With its own effort and technology, GS Chem-Tech is teh first to provide the complete set of "Vacuum Concentration of Dilute Sulphuric Acid & Relevant Equipment".  It is the most sophisticated process of sulphuric acid concentration, which has made it possible to have all the equipment and raw materials available in China.
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QVF Process Systems Low temperature vacuum concentration of sulphuric acid from 65% to 96% www.qvf.com
Scanacon Resin based acid recovery system www.scanacon.com

SEP Salt & Evaporation Plants Ltd.

SEP is a Swiss Engineering and Technology supplier offering design, engineering, supply of equipment for evaporation and concentration processes. Our history dates back about 100 years to Escher-Wyss Zurich. In the 1980s new process concepts for recycling of waste sulfuric acid from TiO2 production processes were developed and successfully implemented at TiO2 plants around the world. Recently SEP was approached repeatedly by TiO2 producers with new inquiries for greenfield and brownfield TiO2 projects for design and supply of waste sulfuric acid evaporators combined with crystallization of FeSO4xH2O and FeSO4 x 7 H2O.

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Shiva Scientific Glass equipment for sulphuric acid concentration plants www.shivascientific.com  
UVK Engineering    www.uvk-engineering.de


Acid Plant Contractors and Technology Suppliers

Company General Description Website/e-mail
Abhishek Engineering and Chemicals Ltd. We offer an assortment of precision-engineered chemical processing equipment and machines that are recognized amongst our clients for their superior quality, accuracy, long performance and finish. These machinery are widely used in diverse industries like, Acid Plants Like H2SO4 Plants, Fertilizers Plants like Phosphate Plants. www.aeclindia.com
Catalyst Handling Resources LLC (CHR) provides top quality Catalyst Handling, Mechanical and related Specialized Services to Refinery, Gas, Petrochemical, Gas Separation, Fertilizer, Acid and LNG Plants throughout the USA and internationally. CHR personnel are highly qualified and experienced. CHR has completed over 10,000 catalyst change outs over the past 20 years!  CHR has invested in and developed high-end specialized equipment to execute projects in the most safe and efficient manner possible. Our Motto is “Setting New Standards” and our clients benefit from the improvements we continue to make in all aspects of our services. All equipment is designed and built so it can be efficiently transported to any part of the country or any part of the world. www.catalysthandling.com
Air Liquide SAROX technology for oxygen enriched acid regeneration www.airliquide.com
Air Products Technology for the regeneration of waste sulphuric acid using oxygen or oxygen enriched air. www.airproducts.com
Ausenco Limited Amec Ausenco Mining and Metals Alliance
Grinaker LTA - built 28 plants in Southern Africa rangining in size from 20 to 3300 MTPD under license from Monsanto Enviro-chem Systems
Ballestra S.p.A. Italian licensee of Enviro-Chem System (Monsanto) technology www.ballestra.com
Bayer Technology Services Bayer Technology Services GmbH, a Bayer AG company, is a capable supplier of technology solutions for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries with close ties to operators. Our first-class network of experts draws on the decades-long experience of a global corporation and holistic expertise along the entire life cycle to develop, implement and optimize plants and processes. www.bayertechnology.com

Biprokwas Engineering Sp. z o.o.
(95% owned by POLIMEX-CEKOP)

Polish engineering company www.biprokwas.com.pl
Boliden Contech 
Now Outokumpu Technology
Boliden Contech markets and sells technology developed within Boliden for efficient industrial processes in the mining, metallurgical and sulphuric acid areas.  The technology is sold in the form of licenses, consulting services,  equipment delivery and turn key plants.  Key technologies: Gas Cleaning, Mercury Removal www.outokumputechnology.com


Campbell Dynamics Pty Ltd. Australian based consulting company www.campbelldynamics.com


Proprietary equipment suppliers and engineering services

Chemithon Enterprises Inc.  Design and build small sulphonation systems. www.chemithon.com
chplogob.jpg (8334 bytes) Chemoprojekt A.S.
Czech engineering company providing services to the chemical industry.   Implementation of "turn-key" sulphuric acid plants under license.
China Nerin Engineering Co., Ltd. International engineering company established on the basis of the former Nanchang Engineering and Research Institute of Nonferrous metals. www.nerin.com
new2.gif (111 bytes) Clark Solutions is a 31 year old company formed by ex Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems engineers. MECS has an engineering and manufacturing operation in Brasil at that time, mid 1980’s. Due to cooperate internal motives, MECS close the offices in Brasil and had our company as their agents and project managers in South America. We started engineering acid systems and manufacturing /supplying candles. Late 1991,  through an agreement with Otto York stated manufacturing Demister mist eliminators under license too. Later (2003) we entered into an agreement with MECS and sold 50% of our business to Koch entering other product lines such as mass transfer. In 2015 we bought Koch’s shares in the company back.
Overall are currently a approximately 70 people team, with a little more than 30 engineers in most relevant disciplines. All our designs are locally made. We have a research center where we develop new products and technologies (such our candle DrySeals, SafeHR and SafeHX, BPC, etc). Our R&D center is equipped with a 450 mm ID x 6 meter tall tower where we develop and test our packing as well as a pool where we test our distributors. This same center has a 3MW boiler and cooling tower, that we developed to test our heat exchangers.
Offer sulphuric acid plant revamping (EPC) with NORAM E&C technology
SX Piping system and acid plant equipment in SX material from NORAM Int. AB
Davis and Associates Consulting, Inc. - www.davisandassociatesconsulting.com
Descon United Have provided engineering services for acid plants in India www.desconunited.com
Design Excellence (India) Private Limited Engineering services www.designexcel.com
Dickinson Group of Companies has been trading for 110 years, having grown to be a Global Leading Provider of Furnace and Industrial Services to the Mining, Metals Smelting and Mineral Processing Industries.  
Dickinson’s Acid Plant Management Services provides a comprehensive service encompassing all aspects of sulphuric acid manufacturing. The company’s global capabilities perform a comprehensive scope of services including consulting and acid plant inspections, commissioning of plants, complete operate and maintenance solutions, catalyst screening and loading through to shutdown maintenance.
Environmental Acid Solutions (EAS), a company based in Merritt, North Carolina, whose primary focus is to provide full service sulfuric acid plant maintenance services throughout the US, will bring catalyst handling and acid tower repair into the twenty-first century. Its innovative international patent pending processes and equipment will establish EAS as the leading maintenance and repair service provider in the sulfuric acid industry.  EAS has been in operation since 2013. www.easglobal.us
EC Mining Sulphuric Acid Solution (SAS), is a sister Company to EC Mining and provides comprehensive services in all aspects of sulphuric acid manufacture.

SAS' services include consulting, commissioning of plants, training of operating and maintenance personnel, catalyst screening and shutdown maintenance.

E-PC-Logo.jpg (4832 bytes) Engineering & Projects Company Limited (E+PC) is wholly owned subsidiary of Aveng (Africa) Ltd and offers Engineering, Design and Project delivery services as well as the operation and maintenance of metallurgical processing plants. www.e-pc.co.za
Eric Solbu AB Private consultant www.calypso.net/solbu/welcome.html
FACT Engineering & Design Organization Indian contractor www.fact.co.in/fedo/index.html
SNC-Lavalin Licensee of Enviro-Chem System (Monsanto) technology www.snclavalin.com/en/sulphur
Furnace Fabrica (India) Limited Licensee of Outokumpu Technology www.furnacefabrica.com
Gayatri Fertiplants International Pvt. Ltd. We are known for providing the latest technology to the Sulphuric Acid manufacturing plants. Our dedicated engineers offer cutting-edge solutions to meet stringent pollution requirements, as well as technology designed to increase the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of operating your plant.  www.fertilizerplants.in
GEA Bischoff Formerly Lurgi Bischoff

Proprietary equipment suppliers and engineering services for gas acid plant gas cleaning systems.  Now separate from Lurgi Metallurgie GmbH which designs acid plants. 

Lurgi AG is the parent company (part of the mg Group).  Lurgi PSI is USA based while Lurgi Bischoff is based in Germany.


GIPROKHIM Joint Stock Company

Russian engineering company www.giprohim.ru
A global servicepartner for the sulphuric acid industry. The possibilities are endless; from single consultations or inspections up to complete planning, organisation and execution of Turnarounds. H2SO4.pm‘s key strengths are direct communication, high level of experience and strategic partnerships.  www.h2so4.pm
Haldor Topsoe A/S Topsoe Wet gas Sulphuric Acid (WSA) process  www.topsoe.com 
Hitachi Zosen - www.hitachizosen.co.jp
  Hugo Petersen Formerly Lockwood Greene Petersen www.hugo-petersen.de
Kanzler Verfahrenstechnik GmbH Since 1980 KVT has developed, designed and delivered turnkey plants in the field of pollution control, especially for tail gas desulphuration plants with
sulphuric acid recovery.
Kapsom Industrial Limited Sulfuric acid plants with annual production capacities from 10,000MT to 1,000,000MT will be proposed with modern automatic production process. Raw materials are inclusive of elemental sulfur, pyrite or H2S/SO2 off gas from other industrial units. www.kapsom.com
KSJ Engineering & Projects Pvt. Ltd. Various process and chemical plants including sulphuric acid. www.ksjcorp.in
Marsulex Environmental Technologies, LLC Design and servicing capabilities for air pollution control systems controlling particulate, sulfur dioxide and acid gas emissions  www.met.marsulex.com
MB Consultores Ltda. Counsultant for the sulphuric acid industry in Brazil and South America www.h2so4.com.br
Megatech International (India) Builders of small acid plants 50, 75, 100, 120 tons/day www.cement-plant.com
Minmetal Engineering & Construction Built Disputada de Las Condes in joint venture with Fenco www.minmetal.cl
Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. - www.mes.co.jp
MECS, Inc. Proprietary equipment suppliers and engineering services.  Formerly Monsanto Enviro Chem Systems, Inc.  www.mecsglobal.com
MECS Enterprises Private Limited 100% subsidiary of MECS Inc.  Formerly Monsanto-DMCC Enviro-Tech and Engineering Limited (MDEEL) www.mecsenterprises.com
Navdeep Enviro and Technical Services Pvt. Ltd. Provide complete technical services and a one-stop consultancy organization.  Revamping & Improving efficiency of existing Sulphuric acid, Oleum, Chlorosulphonic Acid, Sulphamic acid, diethyl sulphate plants, etc. business.vsnl.com/neat
NICCO Corporation Ltd. (Calcutta, India) Design and Engineering Services in India with experience in sulphuric acid plants www.niccoproj.com
(Link Broken)
NORAM Proprietary equipment suppliers and engineering services. 
CECEBE works inconjunction wih NORAM.
Novenco is a refractory and corrosion resistant masonry construction ISO 9001:2015 certified company. Novenco has built a trusted reputation serving the mining, industrial and commercial sectors by always providing the best solution for every project.Since 1993, Novenco has remained a leader in the Refractory and Corrosion Resistant Industry by investing in the finest people, equipment and technology, and by providing value to their clients through technical expertise, supervision, preventative maintenance solutions, quality assurance, logistical support, safety, availability and service. www.novenco.com new2.gif (111 bytes)
Nuberg Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Indian contractor www.nubergindia.com
In the dynamic field of Process Plants, our strength lies in the total packages embracing the Chemical Process Plan Design, Engineering, Procurement and Construction of complete customized plants. A multidisciplinary team effort. ORIENTAL EPC’s qualified and highly efficient group of process engineers can give your venture a quick start and set you ahead of your competitor. We help clients to maximize their project potential anywhere in India or abroad with everything from diversified engineering services in India to post startup supervision.We have the Technologies, Processes, Fabrication facilities, Plant & Equipment and the expertise made available through our in house strength and our associates. www.orientalepc.com
Formerly Lurgi Metallurgie.  Proprietary equipment suppliers and engineering services.  Lurgi were acquired by Outokumpu in September 2001.  April 2007 - Outokumpu Technology change their name to Outotec. www.outotec.com
Panamerican Consulting International Ltd.
(Panamerican Group)
Licensee for Jacobs/Titlestad contact sulphuric acid plants. www.panamint.com
Process Engineering Associates  Technology for near emission free Sulfuric Acid Plants for all sorts of feedstock and widely varying concentrations of SO2.  The process design is such, that it will not produce any product that needs disposal to achieve basically zero SO2 emission.  www.peassociates.com
(Not the correct link anymore)
Projects and Development India Ltd. Sulphuric acid plant design based on their own in-house technology. business.vsnl.com/pdil
(Not the correct link anymore)
QingFeng Engineering Group Located in one of the ancient city Yangzhou, the company was founded in the year 1972.  During the past 30 years,it has developed itself into a famous company in China in the fields of environment-friendly engineering, equipment installation, chemical processing engineering, steel and iron sale and the development of real-estate. www.qfiee.com

RJ Associates Engineers Pvt Ltd Provide detailed engineering, procurement, construction and project management services for the sulphuric acid industry in India www.rj-associates.com

Engineering, fabrication, and installation of sulphuric plant equipment

Simon-Carves Proprietary equipment suppliers and engineering services www.simoncarves.co.uk
Simon-India-Logo.gif (7028 bytes) Simon India Limited

Contractors for sulphuri acid and chlorine plants

Solbu Engineering services www.solbu.se
S P Engicon Pvt. Ltd. Engineering consultancy for thermal power plant, sulphuric acid and allied chemicals www.spindustryindia.com
S.S. Engineering Consultants (India) Supply of know-how, basic and detailed design for acid plants www.ssecindia.com
stebbins.gif (3385 bytes) Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Company www.stebbinseng.com
Sulphurnet was founded after a simple observation that the world has changed. So many new developments were available, and the industry simply did not keep up with these ideas. The design of the process was decades-old. We concluded that the old technology was outdated and we had to rethink the best way to introduce these new solutions to our customers. Most of our clients were using old, so called “proven” technology, and we needed to convince them that things could be done differently. We decided to combine the latest technology and all the tools that are needed to deliver a complete filtration process with turnkey service to make this transition painless. www.sulphurnet.com
Technip Six decades of experience in sulphuric acid plants.  Licensee of MECS. www.technip.com
Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions As a globally active supplier, we combine our extensive competence in the construction of turnkey industrial-scale plants with proprietary patented technologies for the production of sulfuric acid, thus making us independent of licensors.
TTG Industries Ltd. (India)  Gas Cleaning Plants for treatment of off-gases from non-ferrous smelters.  Sulphuric Acid plants from S02 bearing gases. www.bayindia.com/ttg
(Web site does not appear to exist anymore)

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Van't Hoff Engineering is committed to deliver Plants with Latest technology at affordable cost and maintaining the delicate balance between process design and efficient operation.  Van't Hoff Engineering offers plant technology on the basis of the allocated budget and client's requirement while still ensuring troublefree plant operation and extended plant life. Plant design is based on inhouse simulation packages which ensure design and cost optimization for any plant capacity.

  • Technical Grade Sulphuric Acid (Fe Content < 10 PPM)
  • Battery Grade Sulphuric Acid (Fe Content < 1 PPM)
  • Electronic Grade Sulphuric Acid (Fe Content – Negligible)
  • Oleum (23% and 65%)
  • Liquid SO3
  • Liquid SO2
  • Chlorosulphonic Acid
  • Non Ferric Alum
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Venus Techno-Chem Pvt. Ltd. The team at Venus Technochem Pvt. Ltd. has a long and successful history in providing the latest technology to the sulphuric acid industry. With our experience of over 50 years and 45 Plants, efficiency and reliability are built into the plant design, equipment supply and construction. www.venustechnochem.com
Vimal Organics Limited Offer turnkey sulphuric acid plants www.vimalorganic.com
VIPlogo.jpg (135419 bytes) Providing worldwide sulfuric acid plant maintenance services since 1977. www.vipinc.com
YangZhou Jin Yuan Chemical Equipment Co., Ltd. An appointed manufacturer for standard products of chemical and non-ferrous engineering construction and a specialized manufacturer for complete sulfuric acid equipment. www.en.jinyuanhg.com