Knowledge for the Sulphuric Acid Industry
Sulphuric Acid on the Web
Acid Plant Database
Boiler Feed Water
Materials of Construction
DKL Engineering, Inc.
Acid Plant Database July 9, 2014
337 Power Street
Copper Cliff, Ontario
Canada P0M 1N0
- INCO Limited
2007 - Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) acquires INCO
- CVRD changes name to Vale
2010 - Inco dropped from name
|Coordinates||46º 28' 36" N, 81º 3' 8" W|
|Type of Plant||
INCO Flash Furnace
|Gas Source||Nickel and Copper|
|(2) INCO Flash Furnace||MK Reactor||Fluid Bed Reactor (FBR)|
|Hot Gas Cleaning||-||Evaporative Chamber - Hot ESP||-|
|Wet Gas Cleaning||
Separate gas cleaning system for each flash furnace (MECS/Lurgi)
Quench Chamber - Primary Reverse Jet - Froth Column - Final Reverse Jet - Primary WESP - Secondary WESP - Wet Gas Fans
Quench - Venturi - Packed Gas Cooling Tower - Primary WESP - Secondary WESP - Wet Gas Fan
2007: 3200 MTPD
|Technology||MECS||Chemetics - Jacobs|
|Contractor||Simon-Carves FENCO, Now SNC-Lavalin||-|
Delivery Year: 1990
Flow Rate: 106961 CFM (each)
Pressure Rise: 10.11 psi (280" WC)
Driver: 5300 Hp, Electric Motor
Plant debottlenecked and expanded in 2006
Liquid SO2 is also produced from high strength flash furnace gases
September 9, 2013 - Installation
of a converter at Vale’s Copper Cliff smelter in Sudbury, a major component
of the company’s Clean AER Project, is nearly complete. The converter is the
first of four converters to be replaced as part of the $1-billion project
that will see sulphur dioxide, dust and metals emissions reduced by 85 per
cent from current levels. Citing volatile market conditions and cost
challenges, Vale announced in January that it was scaling back the cost of
its Clean AER (Atmospheric Emissions Reduction) project from $2-billion to
$1- million. At the same time, Vale indicated it would move to a
single-furnace operation from a two- furnace operation. Although a
significantly less investment, Vale said that the environmental impact would
be greater, by reducing emissions substantially more than previously
anticipated. “The original Clean AER project’s scope was designed for
a two-furnace operation so it meant that when we made the decision, we had
to go back and rescope the project to accommodate the one furnace,” said
Vale spokesperson Angie Robson. Vale doesn’t anticipate moving to a
single furnace before 2016. A team was formed to study various aspects
of the change and revise plans to accommodate the change to a single
furnace. “Since (January) there’s been a lot of work done to rescope
the project,” said Robson, “and that’s still ongoing. “There are a lot
of technical changes that have to be made. There’s a whole team in the
process of doing that work now. And that should be done towards the end of
the year.” Some work has since been eliminated to accommodate the
change to one furnace. Vale’s original
plan involved constructing a second acid plant but with a one-furnace
operation, that component is no longer necessary.
However, the project is still making progress, added Robson. “A lot of the
work on the project that would be independent of the move to one furnace has
still gone forward. For example, we’ve been working on the installation of
our No. 8 converter.” Robson said installation of the said converter
is 90 per cent complete and she expects the system finished soon. “The
sulphur dioxide that now goes up the stack from our converter aisle will now
be captured and sent to our acid plant,” she said. “So the installation of
this new No. 8 converter is part of the project.” Upgrade work in the
smelter to reduce nickel particulates is also moving forward. Other aspects
of the project, including an adjusted timeline, are being reviewed. Vale
originally estimated that the project would employ some 1,300 people, but
since scaling back has yet to amend that prediction. “Obviously now
that the scope of the project has been reduced somewhat we can expect that
there will be less labour (needs); however, it’s still a $1-billion massive
project and it’s certainly going to create a lot of jobs,” said Robson.
(Northern Ontario Business)
March 15, 2012 - Jacobs Engineering Group has secured an order from Vale Canada. According to the contract, Jacobs will design and provide a new sulfuric acid plant for Vale’s Sudbury smelter located in Canada. The estimated value for this acid plant contract is $55 million. This contract includes the contact section design of the entire sulfuric acid plant and the supply of certain materials and all equipment. The Chemetics equipment from Jacob along with radial flow gas-gas exchangers, stainless steel converter, SARAMET piping and distributors, and acid coolers are featured in this acid plant. It is expected that the major part of the proprietary equipment may be fabricated at Jacobs' plant in Ontario. The clean atmospheric emissions reduction (AER) project of Vale includes this new sulfuric acid plant. The overall AER project is specifically designed to avoid emission of sulfur dioxide at the Sudbury location, by over 70% from the present level of emission. Vale believes that the clean AER project is the most important environmental investment in the Sudbury basin. Andy Kremer, VP of Jacobs Group commented that the company is delighted about the selection of its technology by Vale for this significant project and is expecting to continue its partnership with Vale. This acid plant is Jacobs’ second main project at the site. The company received a contract for renovating the previous acid plant during 2002 and has several equipment orders, as the original acid plant was constructed in the 90s.
February 16, 2012 – Vale has approved a $2-billion investment in the “Clean AER Project”, one of the largest environmental investments in Ontario’s history. The Clean AER Project (AER stands for atmospheric emissions reduction) will see sulphur dioxide emissions at Vale’s smelter in Sudbury reduced by 70% from current levels. This reduction is in addition to the 90% reduction in sulphur dioxide emissions realized since 1970 and complements the ongoing success story that is the re-greening of the Sudbury region. “This project is an important undertaking and will utilize the latest technological innovations available to us to retrofit our smelter complex,” said John Pollesel, Chief Operating Officer, Vale Canada Limited and Director of Base Metals for Vale’s North Atlantic operations. “We are creating a new legacy through this project – cleaner air for Sudbury, Ontario and Canada. It’s a proud day and great news for all of us who work, live, and raise families in this wonderful community.” Vale has already invested heavily in the project, spending some $100-million on research and development over the past four years in preparation for final project approval. Project Director Dave Stefanuto says the Clean AER Project will be huge in both scope and logistical execution. “During the overhaul, the smelter will continue to operate regularly,” said Stefanuto. “We have already put a lot of time, energy, and resources into planning to ensure safety and efficiency,and now we’re ready to begin construction.” The Clean AER Project will require an incredible amount of resources. Vale estimates the retrofit will require about 8-million person-hours of additional labour, with 1,300 workers on-site during peak construction. The 70% reduction in sulphur dioxide emissions at Vale’s Sudbury operations will put Vale well below government regulated emissions limits by 2015 – 45 kilotonnes per year versus the regulatory limit of 66 kilotonnes per year. The project will also reduce emissions of dust and metals by 35 to 40% over current levels. The $2-billion investment is a clear indication that Sudbury and Canada are important contributors to Vale’s future, said Pollesel. “Once all the research was complete, this was an easy decision,” he said. “It is the right thing to do as a company and the right thing to do for our employees and the local community to ensure the long-term sustainability of our operations. Sudbury has already earned a reputation for innovation in mining and environmental reclamation. The Clean AER Project promises to add another historic milestone to that success.” Construction will begin in April with site preparation activities. Project completion is estimated near the end of 2015. In 2010, Vale announced a five-year investment program of $10 billion across Canada to enhance and expand its Canadian operations. Approximately $3.4 billion of this expenditure is being spent on modernizing Vale’s Sudbury Operations, including the Clean AER Project.
July 6, 2010 - It could be several days before the series of events that unfolded during Thursday's sulphuric acid cloud at Vale's Copper Cliff Smelting Complex are known and steps are put in place to deal with another such incident. "We are still investigating," said Steve Ball, manager of corporate affairs for Vale's Ontario operations, said Monday. "We don't even have a debrief scheduled until (Tuesday)." The leak occurred about 8:15 a.m. July 1, when a railcar being filled with oleum (sulphur trioxide in sulphuric acid) overflowed. The pumping of oleum into rail cars was immediately stopped when an operator noticed the spill. According to Vale, the leak was contained and the situation was downgraded by 8:40 a.m. A "noticeable plume" of sulphuric acid leaked into the air, Vale said. It left the property and then dissipated over the Kelly Lake area. Oleum, also known as fuming sulfuric acid, is a solution of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or disulfuric acid (also known as pyrosulfuric acid). It is a liquid that turns into a mist when released into the atmosphere. While air horns sounded during the leak, it took about three hours to let the rest of the community know through the media, as well as police and fire officials, due to a loss of power in the general office at the smelting complex. "It's (loss of power) part of our debrief," said Ball. "What didn't, what did work. We need to make sure the (computer) server doesn't shut down in Copper Cliff again." Tim Beadman, the City of Greater Sudbury's chief of emergency services, said the events are still being examined. "Yes, there is a review underway to determine what worked well, what didn't work well," he said Monday. "I don't have any more information to share at this this point in time. I need to meet with the other service providers. That's being scheduled as we speak." On Friday, protesters, who held a short demonstration, said they were furious with statements from Ball that the spill posed no threat to public health. They are demanding answers from the Ministry of the Environment about how and why the spill occurred while liquid oleum was being pumped into rail cars at the acid plant at the smelter complex. Brian Cameron, district manager of the MOE in Sudbury, said ministry officials visited Vale property after the spill was reported to make sure the liquid portion was cleaned up. The matter has been referred to the ministry's investigations and enforcement branch and it will decide if charges will be laid against the company. Protesters, many of them members of CANARYS (Community Activists Need Answers Regarding Your Safety), were also angry Vale did not issue a news release about the spill until three hours after it occurred.
July 4, 2010 - The end to a long-running and bitter strike in Ontario is in sight as mining giant Vale announced it reached a tentative agreement with production and maintenance workers on Sunday. The metals miner says the agreement involves a new five-year contract with United Steel Workers Locals 6500 and 6200, which represent production and maintenance employees in Sudbury and Port Colborne. “It's been a long strike and I think that both sides worked hard,” said Cory McPhee, vice-president of corporate affairs. “Both sides wanted a deal and that ultimately was the driving force to this outcome.” Comprehensive memorandums of agreement are to be signed between Vale and the USW in Sudbury and Port Colborne on Monday. The deal contains a return-to-work protocol, but Vale says it is still unclear when the employees will be returning to work. “I can't comment on timing,” Mr. McPhee said. “Once the vote process is sorted out, we'll begin bringing people back to work.” The union will now present the deal to the membership and ratification votes will be scheduled. “Suffice to say, we're very happy to have a deal done,” Mr. McPhee said. The announcement comes just days after Ontario Labour Minister Peter Fonseca said the two sides had agreed to resume bargaining. Before reaching an impasse, the two sides had agreed on all issues except one – the firing of eight workers during the strike and whether they were entitled to arbitration. A statement from Mr. Fonseca had said the impasse on the issue was not acceptable to the communities involved nor to the government. Mr. McPhee wouldn't say how the issue was dealt with but confirmed that it had been resolved. “We were able to come together and get over that hurdle.” Vale says the settlements were reached with the help of mediators Kevin Burkett and Reg Pearson. More than 3,000 production and maintenance workers at Vale's Ontario operations in Sudbury and Port Colborne have been on strike since July 13. Key issues included a nickel bonus, job transfers, contracting out and pensions. Vale's nickel business employs more than 11,000 people worldwide and had net sales of $3.26-billion last year, accounting for 13.6 per cent of Vale's overall revenue.
July 1, 2010 - A hazardous material leak alert at a Sudbury, Ont., chemical plant Thursday morning was the result of a plume of sulphuric acid that was accidentally released into the air during a transfer, according to a press release from Vale Sudbury. The "noticeable" cloud of sulphuric acid "was released into the environment and escaped off property before dissipating over the Kelly Lake area," the press release said. The spill was due to overfilling a rail car, the company said. The alert was issued at 11:19 a.m. — about three hours after the leak happened. The leak itself was contained and downgraded at 8:40 a.m. "No injuries have been reported as a result of this incident," the release states. "The cause for this incident is currently under investigation." Steve Ball, a spokesperson for Vale, said there was no risk to the public. Ball apologized for the "late issuance" of the information. He said residents in the area have received letters and information in the past about how to respond when the hazardous material leak alert happens, and that information is released to the public as soon as it is possible.
May 28, 2010 - Just like that, an iconic name with more than 100 years of history in Canadian business is gone. Thursday, Brazilian mining giant Vale SA announced it is removing the name "Inco" from its nickel business, less than four years after it paid nearly $20-billion for the Canadian miner. It comes as Vale's relations with the former Inco employees in Canada are poor. In a statement, Vale said that scrapping the Inco name is a "natural evolution" of the company and aligns it more fully with Vale's other mining operations around the world. It marks the official end to a name that dates back to 1902 and has been synonymous with Canada's leadership role in the global nickel business, a role that some economic nationalists believe it has lost. When Vale acquired Inco in 2006, it decided to keep the Inco brand as it made a major commitment to Canada. "There were a lot of good reasons to keep the name," said Vale spokesman Cory McPhee. "One was a nod to the heritage of the company, which had more than a hundred years of existence. The other was from a marketing standpoint. The Inco nickel carried a premium in the market because of its quality." Mr. McPhee added the connection between Vale and Inco has become well-known over time, and the company wanted the entire organization to be brought under the "Vale" brand. That has been the goal since it rebranded itself as Vale in late 2007. (It was previously known as CVRD.) Vale's acquisition of Inco was the biggest takeover to date by a Latin American company. At the time, Vale chief executive Roger Agnelli said the transaction was "good for Inco and good for Canada."
July 13, 2009 – Vale S.A. (Vale) informs that the unionized maintenance and production employees at its operations in Sudbury and Port Colborne, province of Ontario, Canada, went on strike today after rejecting the company’s settlement offer for a new three-year collective bargaining agreement. Our proposal aims to provide the right incentives to labor productivity growth and to enhance the foundations of our long-term competitiveness and capacity to continue to generate value. The strike affects 3,073 employees at our integrated mining, milling, smelting and refining operations in Sudbury, and 116 employees at our Port Colborne refinery. In 2008, finished nickel production originated from the Sudbury operations reached 85,300 metric tons, 31% of Vale’s total output. Our Port Colborne facility produces platinum group metals, gold and silver intermediate products. As previously disclosed, the Sudbury and Port Colborne operations began an eight-week shutdown on June 1, 2009, and were scheduled to resume operations on July 27, 2009.
July 13, 2009 - Chemtrade Logistics Income Fund announced that Chemtrade's supply of sulphuric acid and liquid sulphur dioxide to its customers will not be affected by the labour disruption at Vale Inco's nickel mining and processing facilities at Sudbury. Mark Davis, President and CEO of Chemtrade, said, "Prior to Vale Inco's announcement in April of an extended shutdown we began building inventory to ensure that supply to our customers was protected. While Chemtrade's product supply of acid from Vale Inco ceased on May 9 and will not resume until the smelter is restarted, we will continue to supply our customers from inventory, our own sulphuric acid manufacturing facilities as well as sourcing from other suppliers. We will continue to review the situation but currently anticipate that we will be able to keep our customers supplied until Vale Inco resumes production."
April 16, 2009 - Major nickel mining operations in Sudbury, Ont., will come to a standstill for the first time in more than a century this summer after Brazil's Vale Inco announced plans to shutter its Sudbury mines and smelters for two months. Blaming the devastating downturn in nickel prices and plunging demand for the metal used to make stainless steel, Vale Inco parent Companhia Vale do Rio Doce [RIO-N] said late Thursday it will close its five operating Sudbury mines and its entire suite of nickel processing operations in June and July. Vale Inco spokesman Cory McPhee said there is no longer sufficient demand for all the nickel the company produces from its Sudbury operations. “The pipeline is full. We are not selling all the nickel we produce in Ontario and so this allows us to clear the pipeline. …When we return to work we are going to be in a much better position,” Mr. McPhee said. About 5,000 Vale Inco employees will be affected. Mr. McPhee said the company will mandate employees to use their vacation time during the shutdown, but will likely have to issue temporary layoff notices. The planned shutdowns follow Xstrata Nickel's recent decision to shutter its mining operations in Sudbury, save for a development mine that won't reach full production until 2010. Xstrata laid off 686 workers at its Sudbury operations in February when it put its two operating mines on care and maintenance. It continues to construct the Nickel Rim South mine in the Northern Ontario city that has been the world's largest nickel mining centre since the early 1900's. In December, Vale Inco closed its Copper Cliff South mine in Sudbury. It recently said it is cutting 900 jobs including 350 in Canada. Vale and Xstrata were the respective victors in a heated takeover battle for Canadian mining stalwarts Inco and Falconbridge in 2006 and 2007. The foreign mining giants paid more than $40-billion combined for the Canadian companies. In order to win Ottawa's approval for the takeovers, both Vale and Xstrata promised not to lay off workers for three years. The price of nickel reached record highs above $23 (U.S.) a pound shortly after the buyouts. It has since fallen to about $5.50 a pound.
June 27, 2006 - INCO announced construction on a new $115 million facility that will reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from its Sudbury operation. The facility is expected to reduce emissions by 34 per cent using unique fluid bed roaster (FBR) off-gas scrubbing technology. The FBR SO2 Abatement project will include construction of a gas-cleaning facility adjacent to the existing FBR plant at the smelter; expansion of the existing acid plant; and construction of a Weak Acid Treatment plant at the Copper Cliff Mill Filter Plant. The project is scheduled for completion by the end of December 2006 with a potential operational date in early fall.
MTPD - Metric Tonne per Day
STPD - Short Ton per Day
MTPA - Metric Tonne per Annum STPA - Short Ton per Annum
SA - Single Absorption
DA - Double Absorption
* Coordinates can be used to
locate plant on Google Earth