headerdrawing1.jpg (96365 bytes)

Sulphuric Acid on the WebTM Technical Manual DKL Engineering, Inc.

Knowledge for the Sulphuric Acid Industry Line.jpg (1139 bytes)

Sulphuric Acid on the Web

Equipment Suppliers

Industry News
Acid Traders

Used Plants
Intellectual Propoerty
Acid Plant Database
Market Information

Technical Manual


Plant Safety
Metallurgial Processes
Sulphur Burning
Acid Regeneration
Lead Chamber
Gas Cleaning
Strong Acid
Acid Storage

Sulphur Systems
Liquid SO2
Boiler Feed Water
Steam Systems

Cooling Water
Effluent Treatment
Analytical Procedures
Materials of Construction
Vendor Data

DKL Engineering, Inc.

Handbook of Sulphuric Acid Manufacturing
Order Form

Sulphuric Acid Decolourization
Order Form
Table of Contents

Process Engineering Data Sheets - PEDS
Order Form
Table of Contents


Bibliography of Sulphuric Acid Technology
Order Form


Sulphuric Acid Plant Specifications

Google Search new2.gif (111 bytes)



Acid Plant Database  November 9, 2017

Owner Nyrstar NV

Nyrstar Logo.gif (3855 bytes)

Background Formerly
- Jersey Minere Zinc Company
- Savage Zinc, Inc.
- Pasminco
- Zinifex
2007 -
Nystar today announced that as of 31 August 2007 it had taken ownership of the zinc and lead smelting and alloying assests of Umicore and Zinifex, thereby formally launching the company and creating the world’s largest zinc producer.
Location P.O. Box 1104
1800 Zinc Plant Road
Clarksville, Tennessee
USA  37041-1104
Website www.nyrstar.com
Plant Clarksville
Coordinates* 36º 31' 0" N, 87º 24' 21" W
Type of Plant Metallurgical
Gas Source Zinc
Plant Capacity 456 MTPD
SA/DA 2/2 DA
Status Operating
Year Built 1978
Technology Outotec (Lurgi)
Contractor Lurgi
Remarks Mercury removal system
Pictures   Nyrstar - Clarksville 2.jpg (10771 bytes)
General The Clarksville zinc refinery is located four kilometres southwest of Clarksville, Tennessee, beside the Cumberland River. The operation is sited on 1,400 acres of freehold land of which 120 acres (49 hectares) is occupied by the plant and the auxiliary operations. The land surrounding the plant supports farming, forestry and wetlands.
Clarksville is a relatively modern electrolytic zinc smelter which uses RLE technology. The plant was commissioned in 1978.
Clarksville is located within 900 kilometres of the United States’ industrial heartland, including Chicago and Detroit.

Clarksville smelter is located four kilometres southwest of Clarksville, Tennessee in the United States. It was commissioned in 1978 by Union Miniere SA, making it one of the newest zinc smelters in the world. The facility is surrounded by over 1,400 acres of land owned by Zinifex. It is ideally situated within one days delivery distance from many of the US's major zinc consumers. It is within 800 kilometres of Chicago, Detroit and much of the US industrial heartland. This provides Clarksville with a location advantage, which contributes to its realisation of a premium over the LME price for its zinc products. Clarksville is the smallest of Zinifex's smelters, producing approximately 110,000 tonnes of SHG and CGG zinc metal per year. It also produces cadmium and sulphuric acid. Clarksville is accessible by barge, rail and road for feedstock and product handling.

Clarksville's strategy focuses on consolidating its current competitive strengths. This will potentially involve expanding its capacity by 36,000 tonnes per year, reducing unit cash costs, entering selected US zinc alloy markets to increase proportion of premium margin products sold and securing medium term concentrate supplies and shortening its current concentrate supply chain.


Historically, Clarksville smelter sourced the majority of its concentrates from the nearby Gordonsville and Clinch Valley mines. As a result of the closing of Gordonsville in 2003 and the closing of Clinch Valley in 2004, Clarksville now obtains all of its concentrates from Central and South America, Ireland, Australia, including 19% from Century. Clarksville has successfully processed concentrate containing up to 30% Century content.

Zinifex plans to expand Clarksville's capacity to 154,000 tonnes in three stages. The first stage, scheduled for 2006, will involve increasing roaster throughput capacity to 130,000 tonnes and is expected to cost pproximately US$1.5 million. Subsequent stages to expand capacity to 143,000 and 154,000 tonnes will address cell house constraints.

Zinc Production

Zinc production in 2003 was around 110,000 tonnes and represented 30% of total US domestic zinc production. As part of its strategy, Zinifex is considering entry to the high value zinc alloy market in the US, a move Zinifex believes will increase Clarksville's overall margin.

The smelter also produces approximately 145,000 tonnes per year of sulphuric acid which is marketed through an 80% owned subsidiary, Taylor Chemical Inc.

Minor additional revenues are derived from the sale of cadmium.

Environmental Management

In July 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Solid Waste confirmed that by-products and wastes generated by Clarksville are done so from beneficiation activities and are therefore exempt from certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations.

This is a positive outcome for Clarksville, as it means that the materials currently stored on-site can be treated as solid waste rather than hazardous waste, with no immediate additional storage or disposal requirements.

Capital Expenditure

Over the next two years to 2005, Zinifex expects to spend US$6.5 million on capital expenditure. The plan includes replacements of relatively small plant items, as well as environmental expenditures.

News November 9, 2017 - Clarksville and Montgomery County have landed on a set of lists of 'Most Toxic Places' in the United States, mainly because of toxins produced at the Nyrstar Zinc Plant.The report, released this week by Forbes magazine, ranks Clarksville 24th among cities nationwide that produce the most toxins and Montgomery County 31st in counties with that standing.  The report was published in Forbes using Environmental Protection Agency data compiled and analyzed by Ode To Clean, a company that creates environmentally conscious cleaning products. While Ode certainly has an interest in highlighting toxin problems nationwide, its rankings rely exclusively on federal EPA data.  EPA requires most large industrial plants to report the volume of toxic chemicals they release. That data is compiled into EPA's annual Toxic Releases Inventory.  Tennessee as a state ranked 11th on the list, with 82.3 million pounds of toxins released, according to Ode to Clean's analysis of 2016 EPA data.  Montgomery County (31st) was responsible for 15.7 million pounds of those toxins, second only to Humphreys County in Tennessee. Humphreys was ranked 26th nationwide. No other Tennessee counties were among the top 50 in the nation.  Among the cities, Clarksville (24th) was also listed at 15.7 million pounds. The only other Tennessee city in the top 50 list was New Johnsonville, ranked 23rd.  Mike Evans, executive director of the Clarksville-Montgomery County Industrial Development Board, said the report is nothing new and indicated it's not a significant concern.  "All the companies in Clarksville-Montgomery County are permitted properly and are well within their permit levels."  By far, the primary producer of toxins in Clarksville and Montgomery County in 2015 was the Nyrstar Zinc Plant, according to data on EPA's website last updated in June 2017. The second industry on the list was American Snuff, which had disposals only in the thousands of pounds compared to Nyrstar's 7.4 million.  In 2015, Nyrstar reported disposal or release of 5 million pounds of toxins onto land, 234,000 pounds into the air, and 2.1 million in "off-site disposal or other releases," according to the EPA. Comparatively little was released into the water.  The top chemicals released to air in Montgomery County were zinc compounds (48 percent) and sulfuric acid (43 percent). By water, the primary chemical was zinc (87 percent), with much smaller amounts of cadmium (6 percent), lead (4) and copper (3).  No one at Nyrstar was available Thursday to discuss the report.  The EPA data showed encouraging signs however. In 2004, 2006 and 2007, the amount of toxins released in Montgomery County totaled at or near 25 million pounds. That total has declined steadily since then, dropping to around 6 million pounds in 2013, 2014 and 2015.

December 15, 2008 -
Nyrstar NV today announced that it will be reducing production at its Clarksville, USA plant by about 40% to reflect current market conditions.  The reduction takes effect in early January and is expected to last for six months, reducing Clarksville's production by approximately 25,000 tonnes of zinc. The action at Clarksville follows Nyrstar's decision to temporarily suspend production at its Balen plant and reduce production at Budel by 28% through to mid 2009.  Total production cuts at Nyrstar now amount to approximately 190,000 tonnes for the first half of 2009, in addition to the 35,000 tonnes reduction in 2008.

MTPD - Metric Tonne per Day           STPD - Short Ton per Day
MTPA - Metric Tonne per Annum      STPA - Short Ton per Annum
SA - Single Absorption
DA - Double Absorption

* Coordinates can be used to locate plant on Google Earth