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Sulphuric Acid on the WebTM Technical Manual DKL Engineering, Inc.

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Acid Plant Database  December 4, 2011

Owner Kazzinc Limited Kazzinc-Logo.gif (2380 bytes)
Location 1, Promyshlennaya Street
070002 Ust-Kamenogorsk
Republic of Kazakhstan
Background -
Website www.kazzinc.com
Plant Plant No. 1 Plant No. 2 Plant No. 3
Coordinates* 49° 59' 5" N, 82° 37' 27" E 49° 59' 3" N, 82° 37' 24" E 49° 59' 0" N, 82° 37' 15" E
Type of Plant Metallurgical Metallurgical
Wet-Gas Sulphuric Acid (WSA)
Copper -Isasmelt
Gas Source Zinc Lead Sinter Machine
Zinc Roaster
Plant Capacity - 895 MTPD
Gas Flow: 125,000 Nm3/h
SO2: 6.5%
Emissions - - -
Status - Operating Operating
Year Built - 2004 2011
Technology - Haldor Topsøe MECS
Contractors - - SNC-Lavalin FENCO
Remarks -

Cooling Water: 398 m3/h, DT=10oC
Power: 2130 kW
Steam: 7 MT/h (15 barg)

Major objective for JSC “Kazzinc” in Ust-Kamenogorsk is to reduce sulfuric gas emissions from its metallurgical operations to insignificant levels. The WSA “Haldor Topsoe” unit is being constructed at the site of Ust-Kamenogorsk Metallurgical Complex since the year of 2002 for this purpose; introduction of this unit will allow to decrease sulfurous anhydrite emissions in the city by 40%. Completion of the first stage is scheduled for 2004, estimated project costs amount to 4.4 billion tenges. Around 3 billion tenges have been outlaid since the startup of construction, including 2.6 billions during 2003.


Kazzinc's stated objective is to reduce all dust and gas emissions from its metallurgical operations to insignificant levels. The first stage has been to rebuild the acid plant at the Ust-Kamenogorsk Zinc refinery. At the second stage a "Haldor Topsoe" (Denmark) plant has been commissioned to treat the Lead smelter's low SO2 concentration sinter gases. The third and final stage is to change the Lead smelter's sintering - blast smelting technology to the Isasmelt process within the next 3 years, thus allowing for higher concentration gases to be treated.

Kazzinc's experience of a wildly fluctuating market for its Sulphuric Acid over the years has led it to construct an acid neutralisation plant in Ridder, thus enabling it to dispose of acid in times of low market demand by leaching crushed limestone into gypsum pulp form for safe storage. The construction of a pulp drying plant producing saleable gypsum for use by the cement and construction material industries has been completed.

The current reconstruction of the lead production facilities with the introduction of the environmentally compatible ISASMELT Furnace instead of the sintering machine is planned for completion in 2011.

MIPAC (www.mipac.com.au)
Contracted through Xstrata Technology to design and commission a plant wide control system which is a major component of the upgrade to the Kazzinc Ust-Kamenogorsk zinc, lead and copper complex in Kazakhstan.
MIPAC Scope:
• Supply all of the new plant designers with consistent measurement and control design standards to be used across all of the plant
• Design and configure the plant wide Emerson DeltaV distributed control system
• Design and supply of electrical control and instrumentation for the new ISASMELT™ lead and copper plants and the IsaProcess copper refinery.

Control System: Emerson DeltaV Distributed Control System

Capacity: Saturated steam 8 kg/s ( Pb-WHB ) and 6.5 kg/s ( Cu-WHB )
Unit Type: 1 x WHB for Cu ISA-smelt Furnace
               1 X WHB for Pb ISA-smelt Furnace
FW Scope: Design & Supply for WHB and key auxiliary equipment

Pictures   Kazzinc-Isasmelt-1.JPG (41546 bytes)

Weak acid concentration plant
Kazzinc-Ust-Kamenogorsk-3.JPG (233113 bytes)  Kazzinc-Ust-Kamenogorsk-4.JPG (217009 bytes)  Kazzinc-Ust-Kamenogorsk-5.JPG (234595 bytes)    Kazzinc-1.jpg (128016 bytes)   
  Kazzinc-2.bmp (738870 bytes) 

Partially completed work from a project to build two sulphuric acid plants.  Project was abandoned.

Kazzinc-Ust-Kamenogorsk-2.jpg (115521 bytes)  Kazzinc-Ust-Kamenogorsk-6.JPG (244742 bytes)  Kazzinc-Ust-Kamenogorsk-7.JPG (248745 bytes)  Kazzinc-Ust-Kamenogorsk-8.JPG (230958 bytes)  Kazzinc-Ust-Kamenogorsk-9.JPG (210484 bytes)

General Kazzinc is a major fully integrated Zinc producer with considerable Copper, precious metals and Lead credits. All the company's operations are in Kazakhstan, mainly in East-Kazakhstan Region. It employes over 20'000 people in mining, ore dressing, metallurgy, power generation and mechanical production.

The company was established in 1997 through the merger of Eastern Kazakhstan's three main non-ferrous metals companies - "Ust-Kamenogorsk Lead and Zinc Combinate", "Leninogorsk Polymetallic Combinate" and "Zyrianovsk Lead Combinate". All three producers were majority-owned by the Government of Kazakhstan, which also included the Bukhtarma Hydroelectric Power Station into the new company under a long-term concession to improve its appeal to potential investors. The controlling block of shares in Kazzinc has since been sold off by the State to the private sector, with Glencore International AG of Switzerland becoming the company's main investor.

In the years since its creation, Kazzinc has significantly increased production capacity and output on all fronts. The company continues to develop seeking to have its stable position among the world's five lowest cost producers in its industry.

Kazzinc is certified under ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS18001 standards.

The Ust-Kamenogorsk metallurgical complex consists of a 190'000 tpy Zinc refinery, a 180'000 tpy Lead smelter and a precious metals refinery. The production site is located at Kazzinc's headquarters, on the edge of the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk, with the three plants sharing a common infrastructure.

Zinc Refinery

The Zinc refinery uses a standard Zinc roasting-leaching-purification-electrowinning process with minor modifications. Originally constructed in the 1960's of the past century as an extension to the since decommissioned old Zinc refinery, the plant has been gradually expanded to now produce 190'000 tpy Zinc metal and alloys. The refinery is fed by sulphide Zinc concentrates from Kazzinc's Maleevsky mine in Zyrianovsk, assaying 53.5% Zn, which are treated in oxygen-enriched fluid bed roasters. The roaster off-gases are captured and converted into Sulphuric Acid in a single contact acid plant, while the Zinc calcine from the roasting process is leached with spent Zinc electrolyte. The resultant Zinc solution is purified of Copper and Cadmium, and then pumped into the cellhouse for production of electrolytic Zinc cathodes. The Zinc ferrite residues from the leaching process are treated pyrometallurgically to release any residual Zinc through either Waelz kilns or the slag fumer via the Lead smelter, depending on the precious metal content in the Zinc concentrates. The resultant Zinc oxides are washed of Lead, Chlorine, Arsenic and Antimony in an oxide leach circuit, before re-entering the leaching phase. Zinc cathodes are stripped and melted in the induction furnace into Zinc ingots and strip jumbos or used to produce alloys, while the drosses are converted electrothermically into Zinc oxide for end users.

Lead Smelter

The Lead smelter uses a standard sintering-smelting-pyrometallurgical refining process, with certain modifications. This allows the smelter to work in close conjunction with the Zinc plant to achieve enhanced metal recoveries through the cross treatment of residues and by-products from the two processes. A blend of Lead and Gold concentrates, Lead, Zinc, Copper and precious metal-containing residues with fluxes are treated in one updraft Dwight-Lloyd sintering machine, with the Lead sinter reporting to two blast furnaces. Three phases are drawn from the first furnace: the slag reporting to the Zinc fumer, bullion to the refinery, while a matte phase is further treated in the second blast furnace together with drosses and other process residues in order to attain a better separation of Lead and Copper between bullion and matte. The matte is treated in small Peirce-Smith convertors into blister Copper. Lead bullion is treated in a pyrometallurgical refinery in the following phases:

- Two-stage decopperisation;
- Detellurisation;
- Harris Arsenic and Antimony removal;
- Parkes-Knowles Zinc-desilvering;
- Knoll-Betterton debismuthising;
- Final caustic refining.

This process flow produces 180'000 tpy refined LME-Grade Lead ("YKCUK" brand), 7'000 tpy Blister Copper, as well as smaller amounts of Selenium, Indium, Tellurium, Thallium, Mercury and Sodium Antimonate.

Reference -

December 12, 2007 - SNC-Lavalin has been awarded a lump-sum engineering and procurement contract by Kazzinc JSC (a division of Glencore) for a new sulphuric acid plant, which will be an integral part of Kazzinc’s new copper smelter in Ust-Kamenogorsk in eastern Kazakhstan. The contract is valued at over CAN $60 million (approximately €42 million).  Using MECS (formerly Monsanto Environmental Chem Systems) technology, the acid plant will capture sulphur dioxide created during the copper smelting process for use in its own production processes, thereby reducing sulphur dioxide gas emissions in compliance with the local Clean Air Act.

October 2006 - In mid 2006, Xstrata Technology was selected by Kazzinc to install two new ISASMELT™ plants at its metallurgical complex at Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan. The installation is a key component of a major modernisation project and will establish Kazzinc as a copper producer, significantly improve the environmental performance of its lead smelter and contribute to an increase in the economic value of Kazzinc’s product lines and a decrease in operations costs.  "Kazzinc needed creative metallurgical solutions to modernise our smelting and refining complex at Ust-Kamenogorsk. Xstrata Technology are providing the solutions we need in terms of a copper ISASMELT™ plant, a lead ISASMELT™ plant and an IsaProcess™ copper refinery. Kazzinc chose Xstrata Technology based on its record of successful technology transfer that will result in minimal technical risk for our operations while maximising returns on investment through rapid ramp up times. We are glad to be working together on these exciting projects that will transform our operations." said Nick Popovic, President, Kazzinc The Ust-Kamenogorsk New Metallurgy project will add a new lead smelter, a copper smelter and a copper refinery to the complex.   Kazzinc is Eastern Kazakhstan’s largest industrial producer and are constantly seeking improvements to their environmental performance. This project will notably contribute to Kazzinc’s goal of reducing all dust and gas emissions from its metallurgical operations.  Additionally, the new copper smelter and refinery will allow Kazzinc to produce value added refined copper, rather than exporting copper concentrate and blister copper. These new products will improve the economic value of Kazzinc’s product line and reduce transport overheads.

Kazzinc-Isasmelt-1.JPG (41546 bytes)

MTPD - Metric Tonne per Day           STPD - Short Ton per Day
MTPA - Metric Tonne per Annum      STPA - Short Ton per Annum
SA - Single Absorption
DA - Double Absorption

* Coordinates can be used to locate plant on Google Earth