headerdrawing1.jpg (96365 bytes)

Sulphuric Acid on the WebTM Technical Manual DKL Engineering, Inc.

Knowledge for the Sulphuric Acid Industry Line.jpg (1139 bytes)

Sulphuric Acid on the Web

Equipment Suppliers

Industry News
Acid Traders

Used Plants
Intellectual Propoerty
Acid Plant Database
Market Information

Technical Manual


Plant Safety
Metallurgial Processes
Sulphur Burning
Acid Regeneration
Lead Chamber
Gas Cleaning
Strong Acid
Acid Storage

Sulphur Systems
Liquid SO2
Boiler Feed Water
Steam Systems

Cooling Water
Effluent Treatment
Analytical Procedures
Materials of Construction
Vendor Data

DKL Engineering, Inc.

Handbook of Sulphuric Acid Manufacturing
Order Form

Sulphuric Acid Decolourization
Order Form
Table of Contents

Process Engineering Data Sheets - PEDS
Order Form
Table of Contents


Bibliography of Sulphuric Acid Technology
Order Form


Sulphuric Acid Plant Specifications

Google Search new2.gif (111 bytes)



Acid Plant Database   July 22, 2021

Owner Boliden Odda AS

Boliden-Logo.gif (2761 bytes)

Location Odda
Background 1924 - Norzink AS founded
1928 - Zinc production began
1964 - Boliden buys 50% stake in Norzink smelter
2001 - Rio Tinto and Boliden sell the Norzink zinc smelter in Norway to Outokumpu.   Rio Tinto and Boliden each owned 50%
2003 - Boliden and Outokumpu have today entered into a final agreement whereby Boliden will acquire Outokumpu's mining and smelting operations within zinc and copper, and Outokumpu will acquire Boliden's Fabrication and Technology
Website www.boliden.se
Plant Zinc Plant Lead Plant
Coordinates* 60° 5' 23" N, 6° 31' 57" E (site) -
Type of Plant Metallurgical Metallurgical
Gas Source Zinc
Lurgi Fluid Bed Roasters: 37 m2 + 55 m2
Kaldo Flash Smelter
Hot Gas Cleaning Waste Heat Boiler - Cyclones - Hot Electrostatic Precipitator -
Wet Gas Cleaning Venturi Scrubber - Star Coolers - Wet Electrostatic Precipitators - Hg Removal -
Plant Capacity - -
SA/DA - -
Status - -
Year Built - -
Technology - -
Contractor - -

1976 - Boliden-Norzink Hg removal system installed
1995 - New larger star coolers installed to reduce gas temperature from previous 30-35ºC to 20ºC.  Cooling sea water temperature: 4-10ºC.  Lower temperature to improve Hg removal by lowering Hg vapour pressure in Boliden-Norzink Hg removal system.  Lead star coolers were selected over stainless steel heat exchangers because sea water is used for cooling and lead inhibits growth of organisms.  Engineering by Hugo Petersen.   Fabricated by Apparatebau Goslar.
- Product Hg reduced from 0.4-0.8 ppm to < 0.3 ppm
- New WESP installed
  - Particle: <1 mg/Nm3 @ 60,000 Nm3/h
  - Acid Mist: <15 mg/Nm3
  - Boliden Etitube WESP: 91 tubes, 150 mm dia., 5 m long
  - Material: 254 SMO 

Pictures   Boliden Odda 3.jpg (9203 bytes)  Boliden-Odda-4.jpg (842067 bytes) 

Boliden-Odda-Jarles-Vines.jpg (90187 bytes) Photo Courtesy of Jarles Vines


The zinc plant Boliden Odda was established in 1924. The plant is situated on a peninsula, approximately 4 kilometers north of Odda. The main products are zinc and aluminum fluoride. Currently the annual capacity is 160,000 and 40,000 tonnes respectively, and the plant is one of the world's most cost-efficient zinc producers. In addition Boliden Odda also produces sulphuric acid.
The zinc plant was modernized during 2003 and 2004, a EUR 88 million investment.
Boliden Odda has its own ice-free port, which is used for receiving zinc concentrates and other raw materials and for shipping refined zinc and aluminum fluoride powder.
More than 90 percent of the zinc produced at the Boliden Odda plant is exported, mainly to
Scandinavia, the UK and other European countries. The aluminum fluoride powder is mainly sold to Norwegian aluminum smelters. 

References Målsnes, A. and Hauge, B., “Technical Innovations in the Gas Cleaning Section at Norzink’s Roaster No.2 and in the Vielle-Montagne Cellhouse No. 5”, Proceedings of an International Symposium on Zinc and Lead Processing, Calgary, Canada, August 16-19, 1998, pp. 613-626.
News July 21, 2021 - Boliden has decided to invest in the expansion of Boliden Odda in Norway to an annual zinc production of 350 Ktonnes. The investment is for a total of EUR 700 m and will be completed at the end of 2024. The expansion means that the production of zinc with world-leading climate performance will almost double.  Today, Boliden Odda has an annual production capacity of 200 Ktonnes of zinc. The operation will be supplied with fossil-free electricity, and waste deposition will take place in mountin caverns using unique, sustainable technology. The investment will mean an increase in the annual production capacity for zinc to 350 Ktonnes and substantially improved productivity while also avoiding a significant amount of future maintenance. In addition to zinc, it will also be possible to extract the bi-metals lead, gold and silver. The increased production capacity together with improved energy efficiency and a new, long-term contract for the supply of fossil-free electricity means a further reduction in the already low carbon dioxide intensity. All of the environmental permits for the operation have been obtained.  "This is one of the largest investments in Boliden's history. By increasing the production of zinc with the highest climate performance while also improving resource efficiency and productivity, we are setting a new standard for zinc smelting both in terms of sustainability performance and cost effectiveness," says Mikael Staffas, President and CEO, Boliden.  The investment also includes several new facilities at Boliden Odda, including a new roaster, a new sulphuric acid plant, expansion and modernization of the leaching and the purification plant, a new cellhouse and expansion of the foundry and quay infrastructure. The major part of the total investment of EUR 700 m will be carried out during 2022 and 2023. The expansion project also means that the level of digitization and automation in the operation will increase, which will help improve productivity. As a result of this significant technological development, Boliden Odda has been granted investment support by Enova and Innovasjon Norge.

October 6, 2016
- Boliden has agreed to sell the aluminium fluoride operations at the Norwegian zinc smelter, Odda, to the Italian firm Fluorsid S.p.A.  The divestment refers to the standalone Noralf operations which comprise the manufacture and sale of aluminium fluoride and are located at the Odda zinc smelter. Aluminium fluoride, which is used in the manufacturing of aluminium, is produced in a process using large quantities of sulphuric acid – a by-product of the zinc process.  The purchase price of EUR 12.5 m will be paid in cash. The transaction is scheduled for completion during the fourth quarter.  A long-term agreement was simultaneously signed regarding the sale of sulphuric acid to Fluorsid.  Fluorsid was established in 1969 and is the world leader in the market of inorganic fluorochemicals for the aluminium industry, with an annual capacity of over 100,000 tonnes of aluminium fluoride and synthetic cryolite.  “The divestment is in line with Boliden’s strategy of increasing its focus on the core zinc operations at Odda, and expanding production to 200 ktonnes of zinc per year from Q2 2017. We believe the transaction is positive for the development of Noralf which now will be part of a world leading group within the aluminium fluoride business. The deal also secures the sale of half of Odda’s sulphuric acid,” says Kerstin Konradsson, President Boliden Smelters. Odda’s aluminium fluoride operations have posted an average annual turnover and operating profit of just over SEK 300 m and SEK 17 m, respectively, over the past five years. The sale will yield a capital gain of approximately SEK 60 m.

August 30, 2013 - Early Friday morning, August 30, Boliden's zinc smelter in Odda experienced problems with an acid meter in the sulphuric acid plant.  As a result, large amounts of white smoke spread in the area. According to the smelter's measurements, the smoke contained low concentrations of sulphuric acid and was not hazardous.  The sulphuric acid plant has now been shut down, and is expected to be up and running again after the weekend. The zinc production is partly affected by the incident, and is also estimated to return to full capacity after the weekend.  On, Monday September 2, the production was up to full capacity again.

January 30, 2009 - The prevailing weak market situation is causing Boliden to implement a reduction in copper metal production at its smelters in Sweden and Finland in the first quarter.  "This is an extreme situation that affects the whole industry, and it is hard to predict how the market is going to develop. The demand for copper and the by-product sulphuric acid is weak," says Svante Nilsson, SVP for Business Area Market.  The reduction, which will be implemented with immediate effect, will see copper metal production cut by approximately 17,000 tonnes in the first quarter of 2009.

2001 - Rio Tinto and Boliden have completed the sale of the Norzink zinc smelter in Norway to Outokumpu for US$180 million cash.  Rio Tinto and Boliden each owned 50% of Norzink.

MTPD - Metric Tonne per Day           STPD - Short Ton per Day
MTPA - Metric Tonne per Annum      STPA - Short Ton per Annum
SA - Single Absorption
DA - Double Absorption

* Coordinates can be used to locate plant on Google Earth